Facts sourced from the following:

Better for animals

Ministry of Health and Ministry for Primary Industries. Antimicrobial Resistance: New Zealand’s current situation and identified areas for action. 2017. Retrieved from:

Better for you

Wall C, Brunt DR, Grant CC. Ethnic variance in iron status: is it related to dietary intake? Public Health Nutr, 2008; 12(9): 1413-21.

University of Otago and Ministry of Health. A Focus on Nutrition: Key findings of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2011.

Ministry of Health. Eating and Activity Guidelines for New Zealand Adults. Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2015.

NHMRC. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2006. 

Better for the planet

Ministry for the Environment, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Tracker, 2017. Retrieved from:

Case B and Ryan C. (2020). An analysis of carbon stocks and net carbon position for New Zealand sheep and beef farmland. Department of Applied Ecology, School of Science, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland.

Andre M. Mazzetto, Shelley Falconer, Stewart Ledgard, Carbon footprint of New Zealand beef and sheep meat exported to different markets, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 98, 2023, 106946, ISSN 0195-9255,  

Mazzetto A, Falconer S, Ledgard S. (2022). Carbon footprint of New Zealand beef and sheep exported to different markets. Report for MIA and B+LNZ. AgResearch, Lincoln. 

Mazzetto et al. (2022). Review of the carbon footprint of beef and sheep meat. Report for MIA and B+LNZ. AgResearch, Lincoln.  

Beef + Lamb New Zealand Economic Service. Unpublished information on land area by Territorial Authority suitable for arable plant protein production. 2019. 

Norton D and Pannell J. (2018). Desk-top assessment of native vegetation on New Zealand sheep and beef farms. School of Forestry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch and Institute for Applied Ecology, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland.

Pannell JL, Buckley HL, Case BS, Norton DA. (2021). The significance of sheep and beef farms to conservation of native vegetation in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 45(1)

Zonderland-Thomassen M, Lieffering M, Ledgard S. (2014). Water footprint of beef cattle and sheep produced in New Zealand: water scarcity and eutrophication impacts. Journal of cleaner production, 73, 253-262.

Stats NZ.

OverseerFM website.

Better for communities

Heilbron S. (2020). Social contribution of the New Zealand red meat industry.

Heilbron S. (2020). Economic contribution of the New Zealand red meat industry.

Meat Industry Association. Unpublished processing workforce training data.

Tanira Kingi, 'Ahuwhenua – Māori land and agriculture', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, (accessed 9 February 2021)